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Our Founder Treasurer, Ms. Samjhana Thapa represented of Biotechnology Society of Nepal (BSN) in the Global Ethics Forum in Geneva on 30June and 1st July 2011.The main objectives of this conference was to provide an opportunity for participants to arrange bilateral meetings or small group meetings to follow up the conference in order to:

  • Explore bilateral future cooperation with participating individuals and its organizations
  • Prepare projects for implementing recommendations
  • Find partners for their own projects

Ms. Thapa showed her active participation. She was able to make network with different people around the world. The registration of BSN as the contact organization in Nepal has been regarded as a good achievement for the society and the country.

Uma S. Shah and Amol Dahal
National Agriculture Genetic Resources Centre (Gene Bank),
Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), P. O.Box 3055, Nepal
E-mail: ushah_gene@yahoo.com

Abstract
Agriculture is the major sector of Nepalese economy. It provides employment opportunities to 66 percent of the total population and contributes about 36 percent in the GDP. Therefore, the development of agriculture sector is the key for development of national economy. However the lack of improved varieties seems to be a root cause for low agricultural production and poor economic growth of the country. If this situation persists, the significant part of the country’s economy will have to be spent on import of agricultural commodities in the future. Hence it is high time to go for advanced technologies that enhance agricultural produce to ensure food security in Nepal. In this context, biotechnological innovation and commercialization has great potential for agriculture and economic development of the country. Advanced researches on biotechnology for crop improvements and development and commercialization of GM crops could give definite direction to the agriculture of the country.

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Nepal Agriculture Research Council (NARC), Biotechnology Unit is organizing ” National Biotechnology Conference 2011″ with theme ” Biological Revolution through Biotech” on 12-13 July 2011 at Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal. You are cordially invited for the participation of the program. This program will be inaugurated by Honorable Minister of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Nepal.

Venue: National Agriculture Research Institute Hall, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal

Conformed Speakers:

  1. Dr. Dilip Panthee (Asso. Prof. North Carolina State University, NC, USA)

Deadline for Abstract Submission: 17 June 2011
The abstract should be within 250 words and the topic should relate to theme of the conference. Similarly, you will be notified about its acceptance. The topic of the article should be purely research based except for status and policy papers.

Areas for the abstract submission:

  1. Status of the biotechnology research, production and development
  2. Tissue culture and in-vitro techniques
  3. Biodiversity conservation and utilization using biotechnology tools.
  4. Breeding and genetics using biotechnology tools.
  5. Vaccine and medical biotechnology
  6. Policy on biotechnology research, production and development

For further information, please contact Raj K. Niroula (rkn27st@yahoo.com) and Resham B. Amgai (reshamamgain@yahoo.com) at Biotechnology Unit (Phone: +977 1 5539658).

For details please download the document below

Notice & Program Biotech Conference 2011

April 25-26 – James Watson, a biologist from Indiana University, and Francis Crick, a physicist, were working at the Cavendish Lab in Cambridge, England on the structure of DNA. On Saturday, February 28, 1953 it is reported that Crick came into the Eagle, a Cambridge pub, and announced to everyone there that they had “found the secret of life”. In 1953 they proposed the double helix model of DNA. In April of 1953 the Watson and Crick paper appeared in the journal Nature 171: 737-738 & 964-967 (1953). US Congress declared April 25th 2003 as DNA Day to celebrate the completion of the human genome project and the 50th anniversary of the description of DNA.

In this regard Biotechnology Society of Nepal (BSN) has been celebrating “World DNA Day” every year since 2008 by organizing different talk programs, seminars, documentary shows and student awareness programs. This year also the day was celebrated under the theme “Biotech Youth Meet 2011” at White House institute of Science and Technology (WHIST), Khumlaltar. Over 250 students from biotechnology and applied biological sciences studying at Kathmandu University, Tribhuvan University, WHIST, SANN International College, LBEF College and GEMS institute of Higher education and other different colleges participated. The program was also attendant by more than 50 scientists and researchers from government institutions like NAST, NARC, NAFOL, Government delegates from Public Service Commission (PSC) and Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) and private sectors.

In the program Mr. Jivan Rijal from NAFOL stressed the need of DNA Databank for crime investigation, identification of missing individuals and wildlife management. He also sought for clear act and rules, appropriate education for judges and law students and support for scientific community for making the judgment based on scientific evidence.

Speaking at the program, Mr. Dibesh Karmacharya, Executive Director of Intrepid Nepal Pvt. Ltd. emphasized on the 3-C (Communicate, Collaborate and build the biotech Community) for the development of biotechnology in Nepal. Similarly, Dr. Sameer M. Dixit, Country Director of Center for Molecular Dynamics Nepal (CMDN) highlighted the role of biotechnology in public health and biomedical research.

Speaking at the program, Dr. Kayo Devi Yami, acting chair person PSC of Nepal stressed on need of taskforce comprising researchers, scientists, biotech graduates and concerned stakeholders to pressure the concern ministries and line agencies to recruit the biotech graduates via PSC. She also clarified that PSC only cannot recognize the biotech graduates until the concerned ministries demand for the post and also assured that PSC will work at high speed in developing curriculum for recognition of those graduates.

During the program, Mr. Ganesh Shah, former minister, MoST wished for capturing first Nobel Prize for Nepal in the field of biotechnology by encouraging the scientific community and graduates and assured that he is dedicated for the development for biotechnology in Nepal. He also said about the entrepreneurial activity apart from research for contributing economic growth of the country. He added that unification in work and sharing of facilities currently available is inevitable for sustainability and growth.

Mr. Mukunda Raj Prakash Gimire, Joint Secretary of MoST and also the Coordinator of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Technical Team said that government is working for the development of Biotechnology and also highlighted the Biotechnology policy of Nepal 2063.

Speaking at the program, Dr. Dinesh Raj Bhuju, Head of Faculty of Science, NAST focused on the facilities and opportunities available for biotechnology graduates and future works of NAST in this field.

Similarly, Dr. Mukunda Ranjit, President of Nepal Biotech Association (NBA) highlighted the need of government investment, as India has done in early 90s, for the development of Biotechnology.

Similarly, Dr. Janardan Lamichhane, Vice President of Regional Branch Office, Asian Federation of Biotechnology (AFOB) emphasized the need of technology transfer and collaboration among different international research institutions for capacity building and establishment of state-of-the- art facilities.

Speaking at the program, Mr. Rajiv Singh, Head of Institute, WHIST highlighted the need of collaborative effort among different biotech institutions for upliftment of biotechnology and development competent graduates.

In the program, Mr. Ravi Bhandari, Vice President of BSN highlighted current projects of BSN like e-bulletin, e-interview, article on demand (AOD), brain drain to brain gain and BSN journal entitled Nepal Journal of Biotechnology (NJB) which will ultimately enhance the academic knowledge of students, scientists and researchers in this field. He also added that BSN will come up with new projects and opportunities for them.

Mr. Prajwal Rajbhandari, a MS by Research (Bio-Technology) graduate from Kathmandu University focused on the unity among biotech graduates, faculty members for uplifting new born subject in Nepal and role of BSN in fulfilling this. Similarly, Mr. Hemanta Raj Mainali, Teaching Assistant and Biotech graduate from Department of Biotechnology, Kathmandu University said that involvement of youth is inevitable for development of biotechnology in Nepal and need of such program for making the awareness among the different stakeholders for collaborative effort.

The program was organized by Biotechnology Society of Nepal (BSN), sponsored by WHIST and supported by JHS Analytic Trader, Menaka Enterprizes, Intrepid Nepal, Chaudhary Group, Himalaya Distillery, GEMS/AUF and Everest Biotech.

Also, on 26th of April, Mitra Kunj/Nepal Science and Technology Development Forum/ Russia Centre of Science and Culture headed by Mr Ganesh Shah also celebrated World DNA Day on the topic “Talk program on Biotechnology”. Speaker for the program were Dr. Janardan Lamichhane, Associate Professor at Department of Biotechnology, Kathmandu University and Dr. Pramod Aryal, Chief Scientific Officer at Deurali Janata Biotech Pharma, a Biotech wing of renowned pharmaceutical company Deurali Janata Pharmaceuticals Limited (DJPL).

Core Team of the Biotech Youth Meet 2011

Organizing Team of Biotech Youth Meet - 2011

Click on the picture for enlarged version.

“ …. A single idea from the human mind can build cities…..

An idea can transform the world and rewrite all the rules…..” (Inception, 2010)

As stated in the quote from the 2010 blockbuster movie “Inception”, a single idea can indeed transform the whole world. Human history has witnessed many such ideas – Newton’s law of gravitation, Einstein’s theory of Relativity, Mendel’s theory of inheritance, Watson & Crick’s model of double-helix DNA and many more on the list to follow. For centuries scientific publications have been a platform to communicate any scientific ideas. Nevertheless scientific publication has also been a means to put ones views forward and initiate debates to address key issues such as global warming, biodiversity conservation, epidemics, etc. It is an undisputed fact that scientific progress serves as a development indicator of any nation and that is where scientific journal publication serves for national development.

Biotechnology Society of Nepal (BSN) had a vision to work towards journal publication especially in biotechnology and related life-sciences since its inception. In fact, biotechnology in Nepal is just toddling. Then, back in 2007, Nepal did not have even a single scientific journal published regularly that could document the precocious works of modern biotechnology. Research scientists from Nepal had to depend on international journals for their work to be recognized.

Despite many challenges, BSN took the lead to initiate Nepal Journal of Biotechnology (NJB) so as to address issues especially in biotechnology and its related domains of life-sciences. NJB got established in mid 2009 assembling a team of both young as well as distinguished scientists from Nepal and abroad to work for the publication of the journal. Later, towards the first quarter of 2010, NJB registered itself in Nepal Journal Online (Nepjol) as a peer reviewed open access journal.

NJB has recently published its inaugural issue on January 2011. There are 4 Original Research Articles, 1 Review Article, 2 articles under Short Communication and an editorial. More information about the journal can be found in http://www.nepjol.info/index.php/NJB.

NJB and BSN together would like to thank all the authors of the published articles, the publication team, the editorial team and the members of the advisory board for a great team effort to initiate the publication of the journal. Indeed this has been a great milestone in the history of Nepali Biotechnology.

The following are the articles published.

Nepal Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 1, No 1 (2011)
Table of Contents: http://nepjol.info/index.php/NJB/issue/view/268

Editorial
——–
Race for Excellence

Dipesh Dhakal

Original Research Articles
——–

Information Theory and Multivariate Techniques for Analyzing DNA Sequence Data: An Example from Tomato Genes (1-8)

Bal K Joshi, Dilip R Panthee

An Evaluation of the Fungi Isolated from Sub-epidermal Region of Post-harvested Stored Wheat Grains (9-13)

Shiju Mathew,  George Thomas, Tufail Ahmad

Analysis of KatG Ser315Thr Mutation in Multidrug Resistant  Mycobacterium tuberculosis and SLC11A1 Polymorphism in Multidrug Resistance Tuberculosis in Central Development Region of Nepal Using PCR-RFLP Technique: A Pilot Study (14-21)

Raunak Shrestha, Rubin Narayan Joshi, Kriti Joshi, Bal Hari Poudel, Bhupal Govinda Shrestha

Development of PCR assay for targeting partial  lipL21  and  lipL41  gene of  leptospira  (22-30)
S Chandan, S Umesha,   SK Bhure, N Haraprasad, S Chandrashekar

Review Articles
——–
Molecular differences between GM- and non-GM crops over-estimated? (31-48)

Klaus Ammann

Brief Communications
——–

In vitro cultivation and regeneration of Solanum melongena  (L.) using stem, root and leaf explants (49-54)

Bishnu Pada Ray, Lutful Hassan,                Smreeti Kana Sarker

Biotechnology Growth Partnership: A Potential Flagship Program in S&T (55-58)

Raju Adhikari, Benu Adhikari

Kathmandu, Dec 31, 2010 – Biotechnology Society of Nepal (BSN) organized a one day seminar on the theme “Brain Drain to Brain Gain” on 31st December 2010 at NAST Conference Hall, Khumaltar, Lalitpur. The program was organized in collaboration with Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST), Non-Resident Nepali – Skill, Knowledge and Innovation Transfer Task force (NRN-SKI). The main theme of the program was about the sharing the knowledge gained by home coming students.

The program witnessed participants from different biotech colleges around Kathmandu. Also there was an enthusiastic participation of scientists representing different biotech organization and research institutes of Nepal.

Four speakers from different field discussed on several aspects of science and its development. Mr. Hom Raj Acharya, Executive Director (NRN-SKI), talked about the prospective of Nepalese students in Nepal and abroad. He also discussed about how NRN could help the innovative and young scientists. Dr. Jyoti Tandukar (Associate Professor, Institute of Engineering (IOE), Tribhuvan University) discussed on ‘Reinventing Success’. His presentation was inspirational and eye opening and based on contemporary issues in Nepal. He raised an issue regarding our habit of underestimating the market value and technical advancement of Nepal in the field of IT.  He provided some good examples where Nepalese technologies are used in the international market.  The importance of self-learning and being up-to-date in the field of one’s interest were highlighted in his presentation. The idea of information sharing was emphasized as pivotal.

Similarly, Mr. Ramkrishna Shrestha, a Computational Biology graduate (University of East Angelia, UK) presented on ‘The Next Generation Sequencing Technology and Assembly Algorithms ‘. His presentation included both traditional and the modern technologies being used in the world in sequencing.  He discussed about the research practices, particularly in genome sequencing and bioinformatics, and also on how new ideas could be converted into research.

Mr. Raunak Shrestha represented the iconic and leading organization in the field of biotechnology in Nepal, Center for Molecular Dynamics Nepal (CMDN)/Intrepid Nepal Pvt. Ltd.  The representation of the company was there because it is established by scientists and professionals who worked and studied abroad. The successful establishment of this company sets a definition of Brain Gain for all. Mr. Shrestha talked about the establishment of the company and its infrastructures. He also briefed about the current and future projects of CMDN/Intrepid Nepal. In addition to this he discussed how Intrepid has been conducting training programs and how it can be a possible place for working for the students of relevant field.

The program was concluded with a discussion session where guests were invited for free interaction with the speakers. The program was a success and first of its kind with such a unique theme.

The second program in the series is scheduled to be held at Central Department of Biotechnology, Tribhuvan University (TU), Kritipur on 14th of January 2011.

Chandra Prasad Risala, b, Tadashi Yokoyamac, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Naoko Ohkama-Ohtsud, Salem Djedidia and Hitoshi Sekimotoe

a United Graduate School of Agri. Science, Tokyo Univ. of Agri. and Tech., Tokyo 183-8509, Japan

b Soil Management Directorate, Dept. of Agriculture, Hariharbhawan 552-0314, Nepal

c Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo Univ. of Agri. and Tech., Saiwai-cho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan

d Women’s Future Devt. Organization, Tokyo University of Agri. and Tech., Tokyo 183-8509, Japan

e Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8505, Japan

Received 2 April 2010.
Available online 20 September 2010.
Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Volume 33, Issue 7, November 2010, Pages 416-425

Abstract

Soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia are genetically diverse and are classified into different species. In this study, the genetic diversity of native soybean bradyrhizobia isolated from different topographical regions along the southern slopes of the Himalayan Mountains in Nepal was explored. Soil samples were collected from three different topographical regions with contrasting climates. A local soybean cultivar, Cobb, was used as a trap plant to isolate bradyrhizobia. A total of 24 isolates selected on the basis of their colony morphology were genetically characterized. For each isolate, the full nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene and ITS region, and partial sequences of the nifD and nodD1 genes were determined. Two lineages were evident in the conserved gene phylogeny; one representing Bradyrhizobium elkanii (71% of isolates), and the other representing Bradyrhizobium japonicum (21%) and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense (8%). Phylogenetic analyses revealed three novel lineages in the Bradyrhizobium elkanii clade, indicating high levels of genetic diversity among Bradyrhizobium isolates in Nepal. B. japonicum and B. yuanmingense strains were distributed in areas from 2420 to 2660 m above sea level (asl), which were mountain regions with a temperate climate. The B. elkanii clade was distributed in two regions; hill regions ranging from 1512 to 1935 m asl, and mountain regions ranging from 2420 to 2660 m asl. Ten multi-locus genotypes were detected; seven among B. elkanii, two among B. japonicum, and one among B. yuanmingense-related isolates. The results indicated that there was higher species-level diversity of Bradyrhizobium in the temperate region than in the sub-tropical region along the southern slopes of the Himalayan Mountains in Nepal.

Keywords: Bradyrhizobium; Genetic diversity; 16S rRNA gene; Himalaya; Nepal

The Himalayan Times National Daily, 31st October 2010

– दयानन्द बज्राचार्य

चितवनकी नीता गुरुङले २०५८ माघ ४ मा आफूले जन्माएको छोराका बाबु राजीव गुरुङ भएको जिकिर गरे पनि राजीवले बच्चालाई आफ्नो छोरा स्वीकार नगरेपछि उनले अदालतमा मुद्दा दायर गरिन्। मुद्दा सर्वोच्च अदालतसम्म पुग्यो। खुमलटारस्थित राष्ट्रिय विधि विज्ञान प्रयोगशालामा गरिएको डीएनए परीक्षणले बच्चाका बाबु राजीव होइनन् भन्ने प्रतिवेदन दियो। सञ्चारमाध्यममा आएको समाचारअनुसार सर्वोच्च अदालतबाट डीएनए परीक्षणको नतिजालाई इन्कार गर्दै जिल्ला र पुनरावेदन अदालतको पूर्व फैसलालाई नै सदर गरी बच्चाको बाबु राजीव नै भएको ठहर गरियो।

विज्ञान र प्रविधिका क्षेत्रमा भएका पछिल्ला उपलब्धिले अन्य क्षेत्रजस्तै प्रहरी, अपराध अनुसन्धान र न्यायक्षेत्र पनि लाभान्वित भएका छन्। फोरेन्सिक साइन्स अर्थात् विधि विज्ञानका नामले चिनिने विज्ञानको यस विशेष क्षेत्रमा पछिल्लो समयमा ठूलो प्रगति भएको छ। डीएनए परीक्षण प्रहरी अनुसन्धान र न्याय सम्पादनमा ठूलो योगदान पुर्‍याउने पछिल्लो प्रगति हो।

नेपालमा सन् १९८६ मा नेपाल विज्ञान तथा प्रविधि प्रज्ञाप्रतिष्ठान अन्तर्गत स्थापित र हाल विज्ञान तथा प्रविधि मन्त्रालयअन्तर्गत सञ्चालित राष्ट्रिय विधि विज्ञान प्रयोगशालाले सन् २००५ देखि डीएनए परीक्षण सुरु गर्न थालेको हो। देशभित्रै डीएनए परीक्षणको सुविधा उपलब्ध हुनुलाई देशमा वैज्ञानिक क्षमताको विकासका रूपमा लिन सकिन्छ, तर उक्त प्रयोगशालाको प्रतिवेदनले मान्यता नपाउनाले देशभित्र विकास गरिएको डीएनए परीक्षणको क्षमतामाथि प्रश्न चिन्ह लागेको छ।

हिजोआज डीएनए र डीएनए परीक्षण सर्वसाधारणका लागि पनि चासोको विषय बनेको छ। हुनत धेरैलाई यस विषयबारे राम्रो ज्ञान भने छैन। तसर्थ सामान्य पाठकको हितका लागि डीएनए र डीएनए परीक्षणबारे चर्चा गर्नु उपयुक्त हुनेछ। यसबाट नीता-राजीव मुद्दाको फैसलामा डीएनए परीक्षणको महत्व बुझ्न पनि पाठकलाई मद्दत पुग्नेछ।

मानव शरीरको प्रत्येक कोषिकाभित्र न्युक्लियस अर्थात् केन्›क नाम गरेको एक अङ्गक हुन्छ। ती न्युक्लियसभित्र ससाना संरचना हुन्छन्, जसलाई क्रोमोजोम अर्थात् गुणसूत्र भनिन्छ। मानिसमा यसको सङ्ख्या ४६ हुन्छ। यिनै क्रोमोजोममा डीएनए अवस्थित हुन्छ। डीएनए तिनै तत्व हुन् जसले कुनै पनि जीवको आनुवंशिक गुण निर्धारण गर्छ। डीएनएको पूरा नाम हो – डिअक्सिरिबो न्युक्लिक एसिड।

न्युक्लियसका अतिरिक्त कोषिकाभित्र हजारौंको संख्यामा रहेका माइटोकन्ड्रिया नामक अङ्गकमा पनि डीएनए पाइन्छ। तर माइटोकन्ड्रियामा पाइने डीएनएले न्युक्लियसमा पाइने डीएनएले जस्तो जीवको आनुवंशिक गुण निर्धारण गर्दैनन्। माइटोकन्ड्रियाको प्रमुख भूमिका जीवका लागि अपरिहार्य ऊर्जा उत्पादन गर्नु हो र यसमा अवस्थित डीएनएको छुट्टै भूमिका हुन्छ।

डीएनए निकै मसिना धागोजस्ता वस्तु हुन् जसको व्यास मानव शरीरको रौँभन्दा १४ हजार ४ सय गुण सानो हुन्छ। मानव शरीरको प्रत्येक कोषिकामा एकैनासका डीएनए हुन्छन्। तर सबै कोषिकामा सबै डीएनए एकै पटक क्रियाशील हुँदैनन्। कुनै अङ्गका कोषिकामा कुनै प्रकारका डीएनए क्रियाशील हुन्छन् भने अर्को अङ्गको कोषिकामा अर्कै डीएनए क्रियाशील हुन्छन्।

कुनै पनि जीवको डीएनए मूलतः एडिनिन, थाइमिन, साइटोसिन र ग्वायानिन नामक चार विशेष प्रकारका महत्वपूर्ण रासायनिक तत्वबाट निर्मित हुन्छ। एउटा मानव कोषिकाभित्र करिब ६ अर्ब यस्ता तत्वहरू हुन्छन्। ती चार रसायनिक तत्वलाई क्रमशः अङ्ग्रेजी भाषाका चार अक्षर ‘ए’, ‘टी’, ‘सी’, ‘जी’ले सम्बोधन गरिन्छ। वास्तवमा ती जटिल प्रकारका रसायनिक तत्वहरू हुन्, तर चलनचल्तीमा डीएनएको बयान गर्न वैज्ञानिकहरूले रसायनिक नामको सट्टा यिनै अक्षरहरूको प्रयोग गर्छन्। एउटा डीएनएको अणुमा केही दर्जनदेखि हजारौं ‘ए’, ‘टी’, ‘सी’, ‘जी’ लहरै मिलेर रहेका हुन्छन्। प्रत्येक डीएनएमा दुई घुमाउरो समानान्तर संरचना हुन्छन्, जसलाई डबल हेलिक्स पनि भनिन्छ। दुई समानान्तर संरचनामध्येको एक संरचनामा कुनै स्थानमा ‘ए’ छ भने विपरीत संरचनाको सोही स्थान मा ‘टी’, र ‘सी’ छ भने ‘जी’ हुन्छ। यो डीएनएको अणूमा हुने स्वाभाविक विन्यास हो।
सबै डीएनएको विशेषता यिनै चार अक्षरको सिक्वेन्स (अनुक्रम)मा भर पर्छ र कुनै पनि जीवको आनुवंशिक गुण यही डीएनए अनुक्रमले निर्धारण गर्दछ। जसरी केही सीमित अक्षर (नेपालीमा ३६ र अङ्ग्रेजीमा २६)को प्रयोग गरी विभिन्न प्रकारका अनगिन्ती कृति निर्माण गर्न सकिन्छ, त्यसैगरी जैविक भाषाका यी चार अक्षरको प्रयोगले जीवजगतमा पाइने सम्पूर्ण प्रकारका डीएनए निर्माण गरिएका हुन्छन्।

मानव कोषिकामा आनुवंशिक गुण निर्धारण गर्ने क्रियाशील डिएनका साथै केही यस्ता डीएनए पनि हुन्छन्, जो निष्त्रि्कय हुन्छन् र जसले कुनै आनुवंशिक गुण निर्धारण गर्दैनन्। यसका अतिरिक्त प्रत्येक मानव कोषिकामा व्यक्तिपिच्छे केही यस्ता विशेष प्रकारका डीएनए हुन्छन् जो अन्य व्यक्तिमा पाइँदैनन्। प्रत्येक मानिसको डीएनएमा पाइने यही विशेषताको अध्ययन गरिन्छ डीएनए परीक्षणमा।

प्रकृतिमा एक डिम्बीय जुम्ल्याहाबाहेक अरू कुनै पनि दुई व्यक्तिको डीएनएको बनोट एकअर्कासँग शतप्रतिशत मेल खाँदैन। यही कारणले केही जुम्ल्याहाबाहेक विश्वका लगभग छ अर्ब मानिसको रूप, रङ, व्यवहार र आनुवंशिक गुण एकअर्कासँग ठ्याम्मै मेल खाँदैन। यसरी प्रत्येक व्यक्तिको हस्तचक्र फरक भएजस्तै डीएनएको बनोट पनि व्यक्तिपिच्छे फरक हुने गर्दछ। यसै भएर डीएनएको बनोटलाई ‘डीएनए फिङगरप्रिन्ट’ पनि भनिन्छ।
डीएनए परीक्षण विशेष गरी आमाबाबु र सन्तानबीच नाता प्रमाणित गर्न तथा हत्या, बलात्कारलगायतका विभिन्न अपराधमा संलग्न व्यक्ति र कुनै दुर्घटनामा अनुहार चिन्न नसकिने गरी मृत्यु भएका व्यक्तिको पहिचान गर्न प्रयोग गरिन्छ। यसका अतिरिक्त डीएनए परीक्षण नजिकका नातेदारको वंशावली तयार पार्न, लामो समयदेखी हराएका वा छुट्टिएका नातेदारको पहिचान गरी पुनर्मिलनमा सहयोग गर्न र गम्भीर प्रकृतिका आनुवंशिक रोगको पहिचान गर्न प्रयोग गरिन्छ। यस प्रयोजनका निम्ति रगत, वीर्य, र्‍याल, हड्डी, जरासहितको रौंँलगायतका विभिन्न स्रोतबाट प्राप्त मानव कोषिकाको प्रयोग गरिन्छ। पुरातत्वविज्ञानमा यो प्रविधि शताब्दीयौँ पुरानो जीवाश्मको आनुवंशिक अनुसन्धान गर्न प्रयोग गरिन्छ।

डीएनएको परीक्षणकै आधारमा केही समयअघि बिल क्लिन्टन र मोनिका लेविन्स्कीबीच यौन सम्पर्क स्थापित भएको प्रमाणित भएको थियो। यसैगरी अदालतबाट मृत्यदण्डको सजाय पाएका कैयौँ व्यक्ति डीएनए परीक्षणबाट निर्दोष साबित र जेलमुक्त भएका छन्। विश्वमा डीएनए परीक्षणद्वारा अदालतमा हुने गरेका कैयौँ फैसलासमेत त्रुटिपूर्ण प्रमाणित भएका छन्।

हिजोआज डीएनए परीक्षण न्याय सम्पादनमा आमाबाबु र सन्तानबीचको नाता प्रमाणित गर्न भरपर्दाे पद्धतिका रूपमा स्थापित भइसकेको छ। कुनै पनि शिशुले आफ्नो आमा र बाबुबाट समान मात्रामा डीएनए प्राप्त गर्ने भएकाले आमा र बाबुको डीएनएमा भएका विशेषताका ठूलो अंश शिशुको डीएनएमा पनि देखा पर्दछ। तसर्थ कुनै शिशुको वास्तविक आमा वा बाबुको सही पहिचान उनीहरूको डीएनए परीक्षण गरेर सजिलै निर्धारण गर्न सकिन्छ। डीएनए परीक्षणको प्रक्रिया केही जटिल भएकाले यसमा उच्च सावधानी र सतर्कता अपनाउनु आवश्यक छ। अन्यथा गलत नतिजा आउने सम्भावना हुन्छ। तर सुविधायुक्त प्रयोगशालामा दक्ष र तालिम प्राप्त वैज्ञानिकले अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय मापदण्डअनुसार गरिएको डीएनए परीक्षणको विश्वसनीयता झण्डै शतप्रतिशत भरपर्दाे हुने बताइन्छ। सही निर्णयमा पुग्न कतिपय विकसित मुलुकमा अदालतले एकभन्दा बढी मान्यताप्राप्त प्रयोगशालामा डीएनए परीक्षण गराउँछन् र विभिन्न प्रयोगशालामा गरिएका परीक्षणको नतिजा शतप्रतिशत मिलेमा त्यसलाई प्रमाणका रूपमा स्वीकार गर्छन्।

भनिन्छ, कानुनले प्रमाण खोज्छ। विज्ञानले पनि वास्तवमा प्रमाणनै खोज्छ। यस अर्थमा विज्ञान र कानुनबीच केही समानता देखिन्छ। विज्ञानले प्रदान गर्ने प्रमाण अन्य प्रमाणभन्दा बढी विश्वसनीय हुने भएकाले आज विश्वका विकसित मुलुकमा कानुनी निकायले फैसला गर्दा प्रमाणका आधारमा फैसला गर्ने आधारभूत सिद्धान्तअनुरूप डीएनए परीक्षणजस्ता वैज्ञानिक परीक्षण र अनुसन्धानलाई बढी महत्व दिँदै आएका छन्। अर्थात् ती मुलुकमा विज्ञानप्रति अविश्वास गरिँदैन।

नीता-राजिवको मुद्दामा राष्ट्रिय विधि विज्ञान प्रयोशालाले पेस गरेको डीएनए परीक्षणको प्रतिवेदन अस्वीकार गरिनुको कारण यस प्रकारको परीक्षणमा हुनसक्ने सम्भावित त्रुटि हुनसक्छ। त्रुटि त हरेक पेसामा हुनसक्छ। हो, यस्ता सम्भावित त्रुटि हुन नदिन वा न्यूनीकरण गर्नेतर्फ सम्बन्धित सबैको ध्यान जानु आवश्यक छ। राष्ट्रिय विधि विज्ञान प्रयोशालाका वैज्ञानिकहरूकाअनुसार उक्त प्रयोगशालामा गरिने डीएनए परीक्षण त्रुटिरहित छ र यसलाई अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय प्रयोगशालालेसमेत प्रमाणित गरेका छन्। तसर्थ राष्ट्रिय विधि विज्ञान प्रयोगशालामा गरिएको डीएनए परीक्षणमाथि शङ्का गर्ने उचित आधार देखिँदैन। शङ्का लागेको भए परीक्षण दोहर्‍याएर गर्न सकिन्थ्यो। परीक्षणमा लापरवाही भएको प्रमाणित भएमा सम्बन्धित वैज्ञानिक वा प्राविधिज्ञलाई उचित दण्ड दिने कानुनी व्यवस्था पनि गर्न सकिन्छ। तर एक्काईसौँ शताब्दी र वैज्ञानिक युगमा विज्ञानमा आधारित प्रमाणले खास कारणबिना मान्यता नपाउनुले हामी आधुनिक समयसँग हिँड्न नसकेको वा नचाहेको र पुरानै रुढिवादी समाजमा बाँच्न चाहेको ठहरिन्छ। नेपाली समाजका हरेक वर्ग र क्षेत्रमा वैज्ञानिक चेतनाको कमी पाइन्छ। विज्ञानमा आधारित प्रमाणले मान्यता नपाउनु पनि यही अवस्थाको एक सङ्केत हो कि?

Source: http://www.nagariknews.com/opinions/98-opinion/17761-2010-09-02-03-53-12.html