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The Himalayan Times National Daily, 31st October 2010

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– दयानन्द बज्राचार्य

चितवनकी नीता गुरुङले २०५८ माघ ४ मा आफूले जन्माएको छोराका बाबु राजीव गुरुङ भएको जिकिर गरे पनि राजीवले बच्चालाई आफ्नो छोरा स्वीकार नगरेपछि उनले अदालतमा मुद्दा दायर गरिन्। मुद्दा सर्वोच्च अदालतसम्म पुग्यो। खुमलटारस्थित राष्ट्रिय विधि विज्ञान प्रयोगशालामा गरिएको डीएनए परीक्षणले बच्चाका बाबु राजीव होइनन् भन्ने प्रतिवेदन दियो। सञ्चारमाध्यममा आएको समाचारअनुसार सर्वोच्च अदालतबाट डीएनए परीक्षणको नतिजालाई इन्कार गर्दै जिल्ला र पुनरावेदन अदालतको पूर्व फैसलालाई नै सदर गरी बच्चाको बाबु राजीव नै भएको ठहर गरियो।

विज्ञान र प्रविधिका क्षेत्रमा भएका पछिल्ला उपलब्धिले अन्य क्षेत्रजस्तै प्रहरी, अपराध अनुसन्धान र न्यायक्षेत्र पनि लाभान्वित भएका छन्। फोरेन्सिक साइन्स अर्थात् विधि विज्ञानका नामले चिनिने विज्ञानको यस विशेष क्षेत्रमा पछिल्लो समयमा ठूलो प्रगति भएको छ। डीएनए परीक्षण प्रहरी अनुसन्धान र न्याय सम्पादनमा ठूलो योगदान पुर्‍याउने पछिल्लो प्रगति हो।

नेपालमा सन् १९८६ मा नेपाल विज्ञान तथा प्रविधि प्रज्ञाप्रतिष्ठान अन्तर्गत स्थापित र हाल विज्ञान तथा प्रविधि मन्त्रालयअन्तर्गत सञ्चालित राष्ट्रिय विधि विज्ञान प्रयोगशालाले सन् २००५ देखि डीएनए परीक्षण सुरु गर्न थालेको हो। देशभित्रै डीएनए परीक्षणको सुविधा उपलब्ध हुनुलाई देशमा वैज्ञानिक क्षमताको विकासका रूपमा लिन सकिन्छ, तर उक्त प्रयोगशालाको प्रतिवेदनले मान्यता नपाउनाले देशभित्र विकास गरिएको डीएनए परीक्षणको क्षमतामाथि प्रश्न चिन्ह लागेको छ।

हिजोआज डीएनए र डीएनए परीक्षण सर्वसाधारणका लागि पनि चासोको विषय बनेको छ। हुनत धेरैलाई यस विषयबारे राम्रो ज्ञान भने छैन। तसर्थ सामान्य पाठकको हितका लागि डीएनए र डीएनए परीक्षणबारे चर्चा गर्नु उपयुक्त हुनेछ। यसबाट नीता-राजीव मुद्दाको फैसलामा डीएनए परीक्षणको महत्व बुझ्न पनि पाठकलाई मद्दत पुग्नेछ।

मानव शरीरको प्रत्येक कोषिकाभित्र न्युक्लियस अर्थात् केन्›क नाम गरेको एक अङ्गक हुन्छ। ती न्युक्लियसभित्र ससाना संरचना हुन्छन्, जसलाई क्रोमोजोम अर्थात् गुणसूत्र भनिन्छ। मानिसमा यसको सङ्ख्या ४६ हुन्छ। यिनै क्रोमोजोममा डीएनए अवस्थित हुन्छ। डीएनए तिनै तत्व हुन् जसले कुनै पनि जीवको आनुवंशिक गुण निर्धारण गर्छ। डीएनएको पूरा नाम हो – डिअक्सिरिबो न्युक्लिक एसिड।

न्युक्लियसका अतिरिक्त कोषिकाभित्र हजारौंको संख्यामा रहेका माइटोकन्ड्रिया नामक अङ्गकमा पनि डीएनए पाइन्छ। तर माइटोकन्ड्रियामा पाइने डीएनएले न्युक्लियसमा पाइने डीएनएले जस्तो जीवको आनुवंशिक गुण निर्धारण गर्दैनन्। माइटोकन्ड्रियाको प्रमुख भूमिका जीवका लागि अपरिहार्य ऊर्जा उत्पादन गर्नु हो र यसमा अवस्थित डीएनएको छुट्टै भूमिका हुन्छ।

डीएनए निकै मसिना धागोजस्ता वस्तु हुन् जसको व्यास मानव शरीरको रौँभन्दा १४ हजार ४ सय गुण सानो हुन्छ। मानव शरीरको प्रत्येक कोषिकामा एकैनासका डीएनए हुन्छन्। तर सबै कोषिकामा सबै डीएनए एकै पटक क्रियाशील हुँदैनन्। कुनै अङ्गका कोषिकामा कुनै प्रकारका डीएनए क्रियाशील हुन्छन् भने अर्को अङ्गको कोषिकामा अर्कै डीएनए क्रियाशील हुन्छन्।

कुनै पनि जीवको डीएनए मूलतः एडिनिन, थाइमिन, साइटोसिन र ग्वायानिन नामक चार विशेष प्रकारका महत्वपूर्ण रासायनिक तत्वबाट निर्मित हुन्छ। एउटा मानव कोषिकाभित्र करिब ६ अर्ब यस्ता तत्वहरू हुन्छन्। ती चार रसायनिक तत्वलाई क्रमशः अङ्ग्रेजी भाषाका चार अक्षर ‘ए’, ‘टी’, ‘सी’, ‘जी’ले सम्बोधन गरिन्छ। वास्तवमा ती जटिल प्रकारका रसायनिक तत्वहरू हुन्, तर चलनचल्तीमा डीएनएको बयान गर्न वैज्ञानिकहरूले रसायनिक नामको सट्टा यिनै अक्षरहरूको प्रयोग गर्छन्। एउटा डीएनएको अणुमा केही दर्जनदेखि हजारौं ‘ए’, ‘टी’, ‘सी’, ‘जी’ लहरै मिलेर रहेका हुन्छन्। प्रत्येक डीएनएमा दुई घुमाउरो समानान्तर संरचना हुन्छन्, जसलाई डबल हेलिक्स पनि भनिन्छ। दुई समानान्तर संरचनामध्येको एक संरचनामा कुनै स्थानमा ‘ए’ छ भने विपरीत संरचनाको सोही स्थान मा ‘टी’, र ‘सी’ छ भने ‘जी’ हुन्छ। यो डीएनएको अणूमा हुने स्वाभाविक विन्यास हो।
सबै डीएनएको विशेषता यिनै चार अक्षरको सिक्वेन्स (अनुक्रम)मा भर पर्छ र कुनै पनि जीवको आनुवंशिक गुण यही डीएनए अनुक्रमले निर्धारण गर्दछ। जसरी केही सीमित अक्षर (नेपालीमा ३६ र अङ्ग्रेजीमा २६)को प्रयोग गरी विभिन्न प्रकारका अनगिन्ती कृति निर्माण गर्न सकिन्छ, त्यसैगरी जैविक भाषाका यी चार अक्षरको प्रयोगले जीवजगतमा पाइने सम्पूर्ण प्रकारका डीएनए निर्माण गरिएका हुन्छन्।

मानव कोषिकामा आनुवंशिक गुण निर्धारण गर्ने क्रियाशील डिएनका साथै केही यस्ता डीएनए पनि हुन्छन्, जो निष्त्रि्कय हुन्छन् र जसले कुनै आनुवंशिक गुण निर्धारण गर्दैनन्। यसका अतिरिक्त प्रत्येक मानव कोषिकामा व्यक्तिपिच्छे केही यस्ता विशेष प्रकारका डीएनए हुन्छन् जो अन्य व्यक्तिमा पाइँदैनन्। प्रत्येक मानिसको डीएनएमा पाइने यही विशेषताको अध्ययन गरिन्छ डीएनए परीक्षणमा।

प्रकृतिमा एक डिम्बीय जुम्ल्याहाबाहेक अरू कुनै पनि दुई व्यक्तिको डीएनएको बनोट एकअर्कासँग शतप्रतिशत मेल खाँदैन। यही कारणले केही जुम्ल्याहाबाहेक विश्वका लगभग छ अर्ब मानिसको रूप, रङ, व्यवहार र आनुवंशिक गुण एकअर्कासँग ठ्याम्मै मेल खाँदैन। यसरी प्रत्येक व्यक्तिको हस्तचक्र फरक भएजस्तै डीएनएको बनोट पनि व्यक्तिपिच्छे फरक हुने गर्दछ। यसै भएर डीएनएको बनोटलाई ‘डीएनए फिङगरप्रिन्ट’ पनि भनिन्छ।
डीएनए परीक्षण विशेष गरी आमाबाबु र सन्तानबीच नाता प्रमाणित गर्न तथा हत्या, बलात्कारलगायतका विभिन्न अपराधमा संलग्न व्यक्ति र कुनै दुर्घटनामा अनुहार चिन्न नसकिने गरी मृत्यु भएका व्यक्तिको पहिचान गर्न प्रयोग गरिन्छ। यसका अतिरिक्त डीएनए परीक्षण नजिकका नातेदारको वंशावली तयार पार्न, लामो समयदेखी हराएका वा छुट्टिएका नातेदारको पहिचान गरी पुनर्मिलनमा सहयोग गर्न र गम्भीर प्रकृतिका आनुवंशिक रोगको पहिचान गर्न प्रयोग गरिन्छ। यस प्रयोजनका निम्ति रगत, वीर्य, र्‍याल, हड्डी, जरासहितको रौंँलगायतका विभिन्न स्रोतबाट प्राप्त मानव कोषिकाको प्रयोग गरिन्छ। पुरातत्वविज्ञानमा यो प्रविधि शताब्दीयौँ पुरानो जीवाश्मको आनुवंशिक अनुसन्धान गर्न प्रयोग गरिन्छ।

डीएनएको परीक्षणकै आधारमा केही समयअघि बिल क्लिन्टन र मोनिका लेविन्स्कीबीच यौन सम्पर्क स्थापित भएको प्रमाणित भएको थियो। यसैगरी अदालतबाट मृत्यदण्डको सजाय पाएका कैयौँ व्यक्ति डीएनए परीक्षणबाट निर्दोष साबित र जेलमुक्त भएका छन्। विश्वमा डीएनए परीक्षणद्वारा अदालतमा हुने गरेका कैयौँ फैसलासमेत त्रुटिपूर्ण प्रमाणित भएका छन्।

हिजोआज डीएनए परीक्षण न्याय सम्पादनमा आमाबाबु र सन्तानबीचको नाता प्रमाणित गर्न भरपर्दाे पद्धतिका रूपमा स्थापित भइसकेको छ। कुनै पनि शिशुले आफ्नो आमा र बाबुबाट समान मात्रामा डीएनए प्राप्त गर्ने भएकाले आमा र बाबुको डीएनएमा भएका विशेषताका ठूलो अंश शिशुको डीएनएमा पनि देखा पर्दछ। तसर्थ कुनै शिशुको वास्तविक आमा वा बाबुको सही पहिचान उनीहरूको डीएनए परीक्षण गरेर सजिलै निर्धारण गर्न सकिन्छ। डीएनए परीक्षणको प्रक्रिया केही जटिल भएकाले यसमा उच्च सावधानी र सतर्कता अपनाउनु आवश्यक छ। अन्यथा गलत नतिजा आउने सम्भावना हुन्छ। तर सुविधायुक्त प्रयोगशालामा दक्ष र तालिम प्राप्त वैज्ञानिकले अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय मापदण्डअनुसार गरिएको डीएनए परीक्षणको विश्वसनीयता झण्डै शतप्रतिशत भरपर्दाे हुने बताइन्छ। सही निर्णयमा पुग्न कतिपय विकसित मुलुकमा अदालतले एकभन्दा बढी मान्यताप्राप्त प्रयोगशालामा डीएनए परीक्षण गराउँछन् र विभिन्न प्रयोगशालामा गरिएका परीक्षणको नतिजा शतप्रतिशत मिलेमा त्यसलाई प्रमाणका रूपमा स्वीकार गर्छन्।

भनिन्छ, कानुनले प्रमाण खोज्छ। विज्ञानले पनि वास्तवमा प्रमाणनै खोज्छ। यस अर्थमा विज्ञान र कानुनबीच केही समानता देखिन्छ। विज्ञानले प्रदान गर्ने प्रमाण अन्य प्रमाणभन्दा बढी विश्वसनीय हुने भएकाले आज विश्वका विकसित मुलुकमा कानुनी निकायले फैसला गर्दा प्रमाणका आधारमा फैसला गर्ने आधारभूत सिद्धान्तअनुरूप डीएनए परीक्षणजस्ता वैज्ञानिक परीक्षण र अनुसन्धानलाई बढी महत्व दिँदै आएका छन्। अर्थात् ती मुलुकमा विज्ञानप्रति अविश्वास गरिँदैन।

नीता-राजिवको मुद्दामा राष्ट्रिय विधि विज्ञान प्रयोशालाले पेस गरेको डीएनए परीक्षणको प्रतिवेदन अस्वीकार गरिनुको कारण यस प्रकारको परीक्षणमा हुनसक्ने सम्भावित त्रुटि हुनसक्छ। त्रुटि त हरेक पेसामा हुनसक्छ। हो, यस्ता सम्भावित त्रुटि हुन नदिन वा न्यूनीकरण गर्नेतर्फ सम्बन्धित सबैको ध्यान जानु आवश्यक छ। राष्ट्रिय विधि विज्ञान प्रयोशालाका वैज्ञानिकहरूकाअनुसार उक्त प्रयोगशालामा गरिने डीएनए परीक्षण त्रुटिरहित छ र यसलाई अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय प्रयोगशालालेसमेत प्रमाणित गरेका छन्। तसर्थ राष्ट्रिय विधि विज्ञान प्रयोगशालामा गरिएको डीएनए परीक्षणमाथि शङ्का गर्ने उचित आधार देखिँदैन। शङ्का लागेको भए परीक्षण दोहर्‍याएर गर्न सकिन्थ्यो। परीक्षणमा लापरवाही भएको प्रमाणित भएमा सम्बन्धित वैज्ञानिक वा प्राविधिज्ञलाई उचित दण्ड दिने कानुनी व्यवस्था पनि गर्न सकिन्छ। तर एक्काईसौँ शताब्दी र वैज्ञानिक युगमा विज्ञानमा आधारित प्रमाणले खास कारणबिना मान्यता नपाउनुले हामी आधुनिक समयसँग हिँड्न नसकेको वा नचाहेको र पुरानै रुढिवादी समाजमा बाँच्न चाहेको ठहरिन्छ। नेपाली समाजका हरेक वर्ग र क्षेत्रमा वैज्ञानिक चेतनाको कमी पाइन्छ। विज्ञानमा आधारित प्रमाणले मान्यता नपाउनु पनि यही अवस्थाको एक सङ्केत हो कि?

Source: http://www.nagariknews.com/opinions/98-opinion/17761-2010-09-02-03-53-12.html

Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation.

BMC Evol Biol. 2009 Jul 2;9:154.

Fornarino S, Pala M, Battaglia V, Maranta R, Achilli A, Modiano G, Torroni A, Semino O, Santachiara-Benerecetti SA.

Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, Università di Pavia,Pavia, Italy. fornarin@pasteur.fr

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent represent an area considered as a source and a reservoir for human genetic diversity, with many markers taking root here, most of which are the ancestral state of eastern and western haplogroups, while others are local. Between these two regions, Terai (Nepal) is a pivotal passageway allowing, in different times, multiple population interactions, although because of its highly malarial environment, it was scarcely inhabited until a few decades ago, when malaria was eradicated. One of the oldest and the largest indigenous people of Terai is represented by the malaria resistant Tharus, whose gene pool could still retain traces of ancient complex interactions. Until now, however, investigations on their genetic structure have been scarce mainly identifying East Asian signatures.

RESULTS: High-resolution analyses of mitochondrial-DNA (including 34 complete sequences) and Y-chromosome (67 SNPs and 12 STRs) variations carried out in 173 Tharus (two groups from Central and one from Eastern Terai), and 104 Indians (Hindus from Terai and New Delhi and tribals from Andhra Pradesh) allowed the identification of three principal components: East Asian, West Eurasian and Indian, the last including both local and inter-regional sub-components, at least for the Y chromosome.

CONCLUSION: Although remarkable quantitative and qualitative differences appear among the various population groups and also between sexes within the same group, many mitochondrial-DNA and Y-chromosome lineages are shared or derived from ancient Indian haplogroups, thus revealing a deep shared ancestry between Tharus and Indians. Interestingly, the local Y-chromosome Indian component observed in the Andhra-Pradesh tribals is present in all Tharu groups, whereas the inter-regional component strongly prevails in the two Hindu samples and other Nepalese populations.The complete sequencing of mtDNAs from unresolved haplogroups also provided informative markers that greatly improved the mtDNA phylogeny and allowed the identification of ancient relationships between Tharus and Malaysia, the Andaman Islands and Japan as well as between India and North and East Africa. Overall, this study gives a paradigmatic example of the importance of genetic isolates in revealing variants not easily detectable in the general population.

PMID: 19573232 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC2720951Free PMC Article

Pubmed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19573232

Full Text Article (PubMed Central): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2720951/pdf/1471-2148-9-154.pdf

Kathmandu University Medical Journal has just published its latest issue at
http://nepjol.info/index.php/KUMJ.

Kathmandu University Medical Journal
Vol 8, No 2 (2010)
Table of Contents
http://nepjol.info/index.php/KUMJ/issue/view/250

http://kumj.com.np/home.php?fd=issue/30&page=cover

Editorials

——–
Patient safety: Prevention during care (151-152)
A Vaidya

Gendericide: A scary truth (153)
NS Shrestha

Original Articles

——–
Osteosynthesis of intercondylar humerus fracture using Bryan and Morrey
approach (154-157)
S Lakhey, S Sharma, RL Pradhan, BK Pandey, RR Manandhar, KP Rijal

Correlation of serum free prostate-specific antigen level with histological
findings in patients with prostatic disease (158-163)
M Lakhey, R Ghimire, R Shrestha, AD Bhatta

Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and serotyping of Streptococcus
pneumoniae isolated from Kanti Children Hospital in Nepal (164-168)
B Rijal, S Tandukar, R Adhikari, NR Taludhar, PR Sharma, BM Pokharel, FC
Gami, A Shah, A Sharma, P Gauchan, JB Sherchand, T Burlakoti, HC Upreti, MK
Lalitha, K Thomas, M Steinhoff

Surgical abortion in second trimester: Initial experiences in Nepal
(169-172)
V Shrivastava, L Bajracharya, S Thapa

Effect of haemodynamic and metabolic predictors on echocardiographic left
ventricular mass in non-diabetic hypertensive patients (173-178)
N Gupta, P Karki, S Sharma, N Shrestha, P Acharya

Comparison of single versus multiple doses of antibiotic prophylaxis in
reducing post-elective Caesarean section infectious morbidity (179-184)
A Shakya, J Sharma

Objective voice analysis for vocal polyps following microlaryngeal
phonosurgery (185-189)
SiKC Toran, BK Lal

Prevalence of pharmacotherapy in the department of paediatric dentistry
(190-194)
KR Paudel, NK Sah, AK Jaiswal

Successes rate of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy at KMC (195-198)
S Shrestha, PK Kafle, S Pokhrel, M Maharjan, KC Toran

Use of double-balloon catheter in the management of epistaxis: A boon for
the periphery (199-202)
M Bista, C Baranwal, M Maharjan, P Kafle, S Shresth, KC Toran

Morbidity and early outcome of transurethral resection of prostate: A
prospective single-institute evaluation of 100 patients (203-207)
B Shrestha, JL Baidya

Upper gastro-intestinal bleeding: Aetiology and demographic profile based
on endoscopic examination at Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University
Hospital (208-211)
RB Gurung, G Joshi, N Gautam, P Pant, B Pokhrel, R Koju, TRS Bedi

Post partum haemorrhage: Prevalence, morbidity and management pattern in
Dhulikhel Hospital (212-215)
AS Dongol, A Shrestha, CD Chawla

Effect of preloading on haemodynamic of the patient undergoing surgery
under spinal anaesthesia (216-221)
J Singh, S Ranjit, S Shrestha, R Sharma, SB Marahatta

Near miss maternal morbidity and maternal mortality at Kathmandu Medical
College Teaching Hospital (222-226)
NS Shrestha, R Saha, C Karki

Acute appendicitis: Analysis of 518 histopathologically diagnosed cases at
the Kathmandu University Hospital, Nepal (227-230)
R Makaju, A Mohammad, A Shakya

Subclinical hypothyroidism in eastern Nepal: A hospital based study
(231-237)
V Rohil, AK Mishra, MK Shrewastwa, KD Mehta, M Lamsal, N Baral, S Majhi

Case Notes

——–
Alport’s syndrome (238-240)
P Bastola, SN Joshi, M Chaudhary, DN Shah

Spigelian hernia (241-243)
TP Bhatia, P Ghimire, ML Panhani

Multiple intracranial tubercular abscesses in a child (244-246)
M Narang, S Gomber, L Upreti, S Dua

Retinoblastoma in a 37 years old man in Nepal: A case report (247-250)
A Shrestha, RC Adhikari, R Saiju

Chronic bilateral dislocation of temporomandibular joint (251-256)
S Shakya, R Ongole, KN Sumanth, CE Denny

Audit

——–
An ultrasonographic evaluation of solitary muscular and soft tissue
cysticercosis (257-260)
P Sharma, S Neupane, M Shrestha, R Dwivedi, K Paudel

Initiating advanced laparoscopic surgery in a medical college hospital with
basic laparoscopic set up: Is it feasible and safe? (261-264)
PB Thapa

Variation of total serum cholesterol among the patient with thyroid
dysfunction (265-268)
P Risal, BR Maharjan, R Koju, RK Makaju, M Gautem

Review Articles
——–
Halitosis: Much beyond oral malodor (269-275)
R Ongole, N Shenoy

Short Communication

——–
Biomass combustion and potential health effects in the developing countries
(276-280)
SK Joshi, A Dahl, T Kristensen, P Roldin

Vaginal hysterectomy for pelvic organ prolapse in Nepal (281-284)
DK Sah, NR Doshi, CR Das

Book Reviews

——–
A-Z of Practical Paediatrics (285)
Hemang Dixit

Clinical Examination Methods in Orthopedics (286)
Rajeev Raj Manandhar

The Short Textbook of Medical Microbiology (287)
Badri Thapa

BioMed Central is offering a fund to help researchers in developing countries attend the conference, Parasite to Prevention. The conference, held in conjunction with Malaria Journal, takes place in Edinburgh, 20-22 October.

Researchers and graduate students from low-income and lower-middle income countries can apply for a conference bursary to cover the cost of their travel, accommodation and conference registration. Places are strictly limited. The scientific committee will award the conference bursaries based solely on the quality of the abstracts submitted.

The deadline to submit an abstract and apply for a bursary place is 6 August 2010.

This international conference brings together leading researchers and industry representatives who will review important recent findings in parasite and vector biology, disease pathophysiology and immunology, disease treatment, prevention and control. Attendees will learn about the latest developments in key areas and initiatives that are at the forefront of malaria research.

More speakers have now been confirmed for the conference, including Carol Sibley (University of Washington), Andrew Waters (Leiden University) and Tim Wells (Medicines for Malaria Venture).

David Brandling-Bennett, Senior Program Manager at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation will give a keynote address at the conference gala dinner on Thursday, 21 October.

Anyone not from low-income and lower-middle income countries, can still submit an abstract for consideration if you register before 6 August 2010.

Neonatal hypothermia and associated risk factors among newborns of southern Nepal

Luke C Mullany email, Joanne Katz email, Subarna K Khatry email, Steven C LeClerq email, Gary L Darmstadt email and James M Tielsch email

BMC Medicine 2010, 8:43doi:10.1186/1741-7015-8-43

Published: 8 July 2010

Abstract (provisional)

Background

Neonatal hypothermia is associated with an increased mortality risk for 28 days. There are few community-based data on specific risk factors for neonatal hypothermia. Estimates of association between neonatal hypothermia in the community and risk factors are needed to guide the design of interventions to reduce exposure.

Methods

A cohort of 23,240 babies in rural southern Nepal was visited at home by field workers who measured axillary temperatures for 28 days (213,316 temperature measurements). The cumulative incidence of hypothermia (defined as <35.0degreesC based on an analysis of the hypothermia-mortality risk relationship) was examined for any association with infant characteristics, care practices and parental, household, socioeconomic and demographic factors. Estimates were adjusted for age and ambient temperature.

Results

Ten percent of the babies (n=2342) were observed with temperatures of <35.0degreesC. Adjusted prevalence ratios (Adj PR) were increased among those who weighed< 2000 g [Adj PR=4.32 (3.73, 5.00)] or <1500 g [Adj PR=11.63 (8.10, 16.70)] compared to those of normal weight (>2500 g). Risk varied inversely along the entire weight spectrum: for every 100 g decrement hypothermia risk increased by 7.4%, 13.5% and 31.3%% for babies between 3000 g and 2500 g, 2500 g and 2000 g and <2000 g, respectively. Preterm babies (<34 weeks), females, those who had been first breastfed after 24 h and those with hypothermic mothers were at an increased risk. In the hot season the risk disparity between smaller and larger babies increased. Hypothermia was not associated with delayed bathing, hat wearing, room warming or skin-to-skin contact: they may have been practiced reactively and thereby obscured any potential benefit.

Conclusions

In addition to season in which the babies were born, weight is an important risk factor for hypothermia. Smaller babies are at higher relative risk of hypothermia during the warm period and do not receive the protective seasonal benefit apparent among larger babies. The need for year-round thermal care, early breastfeeding and maternal thermal care should be emphasized. Further work is needed to quantify the benefits of other simple neonatal thermal care practices.

Download Full Text Article

Source: Biomedcentral

A new issue of JNAMLS is available online:
VOL. 10 | NO. 1 | Dec. 2009
The below Table of Contents is available online at: http://www.namls.org/journals.php

Editorials

Evidence Based Laboratory Medicine
Binod K Yadav, Prajwal Gyawali, Rojeet Shrestha
http://www.namls.org/vol_10/Editorial.pdf

Original Article

Status of Private Pathology Services in Kathmandu Valley, Kathmandu Nepal
Birendra R Tiwari, Shravan K Mishra, Binod K Yadav, Rojeet Shrestha, Jhabindra P Ghimire, Bal K Awal
http://www.namls.org/vol_10/1.2009.pdf

Pattern of Dyslipidemia in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects in Eastern Nepal
Prashant Regmi, Prajwal Gyawali, Rojeet Shrestha, Manoj Sigdel, Kisun D Mehta, Shankar Majhi
http://www.namls.org/vol_10/2.2009.pdf

Pancytopenia: A Memorable Manifestation of Megaloblastic Anemia
Ramesh K Makaju, Mohamad Ashraf, Sushama Bhatta, Ram Gurung, Babu R Pokharel
http://www.namls.org/vol_10/3.2009.pdf

Relationship Between Pyuria and Bacteriuria in Suspected Urinary Tract Infection
Hari P Kattel, Shyam K Mishra, Jyoti Acharya, Aparna S Shah, Basistha P Rijal, Bharat M Pokhrel
http://www.namls.org/vol_10/4.2009.pdf

Assessments of Urinary VMA Levels in Suspected Pediatric Cases of Catecholamines Producing Neurochromaffin Tumors
Rojeet Shrestha, Manoj Sigdel, Bibek Poudel, Prajwal Gyawali, Manoranjan Shrestha, Binod K Yadav, Vijay Sharma, Madhav Khanal, Bharat Jha
http://www.namls.org/vol_10/5.2009.pdf

Serum Uric Acid Level in Obese and Non-obese Individuals
Binod K Yadav, Gokul B Chhetri, Bibek Poudel, Manoj Sigdel, Prajwal Gyawali, Prashant Regmi, Rojeet Shrestha
http://www.namls.org/vol_10/6.2009.pdf

Parasitic Infection in School Children in Thimi Area, Kathmandu Valley
Swasti K Shrestha, Shiba K Rai, Ravi Vitrakoti, Prahlad Pokharel
http://www.namls.org/vol_10/7.2009.pdf

Comparison between conventional Microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in malaria diagnosis
Shravan K. Mishra, Sohn KY, Shyam S Malla, Prerana Bajracharaya, Reena Lamichhane, Jeevan B Sherchan
http://www.namls.org/vol_10/8.2009.pdf

Assessment of Thyroid Functions in Pregnant Subjects
Madhav Khanal, Sandhya Malla, Vijay Sharma, Prajwal Gyawali, Manoranjan Shrestha, Rojeet Shrestha
http://www.namls.org/vol_10/9.2009.pdf

Study of Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Shigella sp. Isolated from Patients Visiting Western Regional Hospital, Pokhara
Jagat B Khadka, Jyoti Amatya, Archana Katuwal, Duk B Chhetri
http://www.namls.org/vol_10/10.2009.pdf

Multi Drug Resistance Patterns of Urinary Isolates in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Nepal
Buddha B Basnet, Dharmendra Thakur, Kumananda Acharya, Nabin Karmacharya, Rajan Kumar Dahal, Harish C Upreti, Basistha P Rijal
http://www.namls.org/vol_10/11.2009.pdf

Incidence and antibiogram of Vibrio cholerae from Kathmandu University Hospital, Kavre, Nepal
Ganesh P Neupane, Ramesh K Makaju, Navin K Thakur, Surendra K Madhup, Nhuchhe R Tuladhar
http://www.namls.org/vol_10/12.2009.pdf

Clue cells’ in bacterial vaginosis
Ganesh P Acharya
http://www.namls.org/vol_10/13.2009.pdf

As we know, Bioinformatics is the application of information technology and computer science to the field of molecular biology. Its main purpose is to increase our understanding of biological processes, which is why bioinformatics is constantly evolving and reinventing itself through new discoveries and technology. Some of the major research topics in the field of bioinformatics are sequence alignment, gene finding, genome assembly, drug design, drug discovery, protein structure alignment, protein structure prediction, prediction of gene expression and protein-protein interactions, genome-wide association studies and the modeling of evolution. Continuing our efforts to provide our readers with information that might be of much interest in the simplest possible way, as we have previously done with blogposts such as 10 Science PhD Related Blogs or 10+1 Medical Librarian Blogs.

We thought it would be helpful to share some interesting bioinformatics blogs that can keep you up to date with all kinds of advancements that are being developed in this area and can also help you find information on new software and data mining systems. These are our picks for the Top 15 Bioinformatics Blogs in 2010:

Fisheye Perspective: A Blog about Systems Biology, Bioinformatics, Chemoinformatics, Science and Life in general- by Abhishek Tiwari.

About the author: Abishek Tiwari shares his opinion on issues dealing with bioinformatics. He is a passionate follower of this subject as part of his research interests, studied B.Tech in Bioinformatics in India and is currently getting his PhD in New Zealand.

Description: This blog includes interesting information on other topics such as: chemoinformatics, visual analytics, systems biology, and science as a whole. One of his latest posts, Availability decay of Bioinformatics web resources: Yes widgets can change it, talks about the inaccessibility of bioinformatics software and web resources and how the use of widgets can improve this situation.

Website: http://www.abhishek-tiwari.com

Twitter: @abhishektiwari

What You´re Doing is Rather Desperate: Notes from the life of a bioinformatics researcher

About the Author: Currently located in Australia, Neil Saunders finds a profound joy in science, which he shares through his blog and other publications. The story behind this blog’s name is pretty funny… after Neil gave a speech at work, “come question time, a member of the audience raised her hand and said: It strikes me that what you’re doing is rather desperate. Wouldn’t you be better off doing some experiments?

Description: We find this blog to be very helpful since Neil spreads his knowledge, research, and new findings to all of his followers. You can find useful information on database-related issues when visiting this blog, where you can also ask questions on topics he is currently or has previously been researching such as biotechnology and biomolecular sciences.

Website: http://nsaunders.wordpress.com/

Twitter: @neilfws

Blind Scientist

About the Author: In Paulo Nuin´s website, www.genedrift.org, you can find information on this bioinformatician´s work, research, sample software tools, and more! Paulo Nuin, Brazilian born bioinformatician finds himself in Canada getting his post-doc.

Description: In this blog, Paulo shares his insight on creating simple Python scripts. He is very well-recognized in the bioinformatics field and Python programming and was asked recently to review a Python Beginner guide from Packt Publishing. If you want to read more about it, take a look at Preview of Python Testing’s beginner Guide.

Website: http://blindscientist.genedrift.org/category/bioinformatics-opinion/

Twitter: @nuin

Yokofakun: A blog about bioinformatics, semantic web, comics and social networks

About the Author: A blog mainly about bioinformatics and the semantic web. Pierre Lindenbaum is a brilliant bioinformatician from France who is very active in social networks. He also includes comics in his blog, which he has constantly been working on since 2005.

Description: Yokofakun is highly recognized throughout the bioinformatics community through social networking tools. You can find a lot of information about software and databases, as well as overviews and tips on their use. A perfect example of his work is found in The Path from EgonWillinghagen to Neo4j, a graph API fro java: my notebook. We encourage you to follow this bioinformatics blog where you can find many interesting codes.

Website: http://plindenbaum.blogspot.com/

Twitter: @yokofakun

DigitalBio: discovering biology in a digital world

About the Author: Dr. Sandra Porter, a bioinformatics teacher in Seattle and President of Digital World Biology, writes about things she is learning and discovering about in this field of study, and gives her opinion on current events that are relevant to the subject matter.

Description: In her article, A ScienceOnline 2010 session mash-up review: Fact checking and trust, she analyzes whether Google sites contain misleading information while searching for biomedical terms. We encourage you to visit her site and share your personal opinion with her community.

Website: http://scienceblogs.com/digitalbio/

Twitter: @digitalbio

Your bones got a little machine (Pansapiens): Ideas are cheap, implementation is expensive; act accordingly.

About the Author: Andrew Perry is an Australian structural biologist and bioinformatician, and this blog´s author.

Description: Mainly dealing with structural bioinformatics and biology, the content found in his blog provides interesting information of current events taking place in these fields. If you are also interested in video games, Andrew writes web applications and games mostly through Python programming. During 2009, his activity took place mainly in Friendfeed and not in the blog itself. Here are the 2009 posts that never made it where you can find information on database services, API´s and much more!

Website: http://blog.pansapiens.com/

Twitter: @pansapiens

Saaen Tist: On bioinformatics and personal productivity

About the Author: A blog on bioinformatics and personal productivity by Flemish bioinformatician, Jan Aerts, who describes himself as “a genetics/genomics researcher who accidentally tumbled down the slope of programming and bioinformatics“.

Description: Focuses on relevant database and software technologies, sharing his experience and opinion after using them. In one of his latest posts you can find information on the 1000 genome project, the kind of input data it includes, and how it would look in a database.

Website: http://saaientist.blogspot.com

Twitter: @jandot

Byte Size Biology: The musings and ravings of a computational biologist about science, computers, music and, you know, stuff

About the Author: With about 5 posts per week, Professor Iddo Friedberg from the Miami University in Ohio, keeps us aware of all kinds of facts dealing with the scientific world using a humoristic approach.

Description: Apart from science, this computational biologist also shares his thoughts on computers, music, and other topics. Iddo also recommends his favorite bioinformatics blogs. One of the blogposts we have enjoyed the most is A Sh*tload of Data , where he talks about understanding the role microbiomes play.

Website: http://bytesizebio.net/

Twitter: @iddux

It´s Not Easy being Genes

About the Author: For all of you Python lovers! Chris Lasher provides information related to genetics, bioinformatics, and computational biology, which are all subjects he studies as a graduate student in Virginia Tech.

Description: Check his blog out for tips on the latest technology in Python.

Website: http://igotgenes.blogspot.com/

Twitter: @gotgenes

Manuel Corpas´Blog: Genomes, Internet, Bioethics and More…

About the Author: Manuel Corpas is a Spanish computational biologist who shares his knowledge through his personal blog where you can find information on many related subjects of interest such as biology, biotechnology, computational bioethics, synthetic biology and more, where we find he is “a lead developer of the DECIPHER database, a “DatabasE of Chromosomal Imbalance and Phenotype in Humans using Ensembl Resources”. We are delighted to see one of our fellow countrymen so active in the bioinformatics landscape!

Description: You can find posts such as 10 Sarcastic Rules on how to be a Bioinformatician, which not only brings humor to what you are reading but gives you useful tips on how to be at your best. It’s a very reliable source of what goes on in this scientific world.

Website: http://manuelcorpas.com

Twitter: @manuelcorpas

Mailund on the Internet: Computer science, bioinformatics, genetics, and everything in between

About the Author: Thomas Mailund, a research associate professor at the Bioinformatics Research Center in Denmark, is very involved in the bioinformatics world and shares his experiences in conferences and workshops, which he attends, as well as other relevant information on hot topics in this field.

Description: This blog can keep you up to date with information that is emerging in these sessions Mailund participates in. One of his latest posts, which we found to be quite interesting, deals with the evolution of health and medicine .

Website: http://www.mailund.dk/ You can also visit his official work homepage for more information.

Blue Collar Bioinformatics

About the Author: Brad Chapman, biologist and programmer, works in the biology department at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. His blog offers support to researchers by answering interesting biological questions, using his personal criteria.

Description: In this site you can find blog posts where he shares information about database systems, genes, and other topics that can be helpful for biologists in their daily functions.

Website:http://bcbio.wordpress.com

Friendfeed: http://friendfeed.com/chapmanb

Mass Genomics: Medical genomics in the post-genome era

About the Author: Dan Koboldt is a highly qualified biologist who works in a Genome Sequencing Center in Washington, and keeps us up to date with this subject through his blog, also sharing his many publications on this interesting topic.

Description: This blog focuses on everything dealing with genomics, just like its name suggests ;) Cancer genomics is one of the subjects he focuses on. In one of his most recent posts, Koboldt points out many concepts and issues that were addressed at sessions in Washington University, such as next generation sequencing and molecular techniques.

Website: http://www.massgenomics.org/

Omics! Omics!:A computational biologist’s personal views on new technologies & publications on genomics & proteomics and their impact on drug discovery

About the Author: Computational biologist Keith Robinson has worked on genomic and proteomic technologies, currently working in Massachusetts in the cancer drug discovery field.

Description: Through his blog, Robinson shares his findings by using peculiar examples, which will without a doubt leave you yearning for more. Read his latest post on the possibility of sending synchronous messages to actors…quite entertaining!

Website: http://omicsomics.blogspot.com/

Bonus!

Our #15 Top Pick for bioinformatics blogs is Bio Star available at http://biostar.stackexchange.com/ A site for finding information about bioinformatics, computational genomics, and system biology, containing hundreds of questions and answers on these subjects. It’s an extremely helpful tool, which allows you to interact with other individuals that might have your same interests and doubts regarding bioinformatics. We highly recommend it!

After taking a look at this Top 15 Bioinformatics blogs in 2010, we encourage you to try the novoseek’s API, which we think is a great resource to enrich content, integrate data, and display information in your own format. We are eager to see what skilled bioinformaticians will come up with.
This blog has been adapted from : http://blog.novoseek.com/index.php/blog-coverage/top-15-bioinformatics-blogs-in-2010.html/

– बिहिवार, 11 मार्च 2010 13:29 दयानन्द बज्राचार्य

सन् १९०२ मा पहिलोपल्ट जर्मन वनस्पतिविज्ञ गोट्लिब हाबरल्यान्डलेे सबै वनस्पतिको कोषबाट सिंगो विरुवाको पुनर्विकास गर्न सकिन्छ भन्ने सिद्धान्त अघि सारेका थिए। सन् १९५० को दशकमा बेलायतका अर्का वनस्पतिविज्ञ एफ. सि. स्टिवार्डले गाजरको एक सूक्ष्म तन्तुबाट प्रयोगशालामा उपयुक्त रसायनको मिश्रण राखिएको परीक्षण नली (टेस्ट ट्युब)मा गाजरको सिंगो बोट पुनर्विकास गरेर हाबरल्यान्डको सिद्धान्तलाई व्यवहारमा प्रमाणित गरेका थिए। ‘टिस्यु कल्चर’ नामले चिनिने उक्त प्रविधिमार्फत् आज कुनै पनि बोटविरुवाको अङ्ग, तन्तु वा कोषबाट प्रयोगशालामा नयाँ विरुवा उत्पादन गर्न सकिन्छ। आज यो प्रविधि कृषि, बागवानी एवं नर्सरीका क्षेत्रमा उन्नत र दुर्लभ जातको बोटविरुवा उत्पादन गर्न व्यापकरूपमा प्रयोग हुँदै आएको छ। यसरी कुनै जीवको अङ्ग, तन्तु वा कोषबाट सोही जीवको पूर्ण प्रतिरूप तयार पार्ने अयौनिक विधिलाई ‘क्लेानिङ’ भनिन्छ। वनस्पति होस् वा प्राणी, सबै जीवको प्रत्येक कोषमा सोही जीवको पुनर्विकास गर्न आवश्यक सम्पूर्ण आनुवंशिक सूचना (जेनेटिक इन्फरमेसन) पाइन्छ भन्ने यथार्थ प्रमाणित भइसकेको छ।
क्लेानिङ प्रविधिमार्फत् बोटविरुवाको पुनर्विकास गर्न सजिलै भए पनि प्राणी र विशेषतः स्तनधारी प्राणीको पुनर्विकास गर्न भने त्यति सरल थिएन। सन् १९९७ मा मात्र स्कटल्यान्डका आएन् विल्मट र उनका सहकर्मी वैज्ञानिकहरू क्लेानिङ प्रविधिमार्फत् एक स्तनधारी प्राणीको प्रतिरूप (क्लोन) निर्माण गर्न सफल भएका थिए। उनीहरूले एक वयस्क भेडीको थुनबाट संकलन गरिएको एक कोषबाट विशेष विधिद्वारा नयाँ भेडीको पूर्ण प्रतिरूप तयार गरेका थिए। ‘डली’ नाम दिइएको उक्त भेडीलाई दुरुस्तै आमाको प्रतिरूपमा उत्पन्न गरिएको थियो। यस प्रविधिबाट मानवको प्रतिरूपसमेत तयार पार्न सकिने सम्भावना देखिएकाले विल्मट र उनका सहकर्मीको उक्त अनुसन्धानले त्यतिबेला विश्वमा ठूलो हलचल मच्चाएको थियो।

विल्मट र उनका सहकर्मीले विकास गरेको क्लोनिङ प्रविधिको प्रयोग गरी वैज्ञानिकहरू मुसा, कुकुर, गाई, उँट, घोडा तथा मानिसको सबैभन्दा नजिकको आनुवंशिक नाता भएको प्राणी मानिने ‘रेसस’ जातको बाँदरजस्ता अरू धेरै प्रकारका स्तनधारी प्राणीको प्रतिरूप तयार पार्न सफल भइसकेका छन्। यस प्रविधिले हजारौं वर्षअघि लोप भइसकेका प्राणीको पुनर्विकास गर्न सकिने सम्भावनाको ढोका उघारेको छ। क्लेानिङ प्रविधिमार्फत् मानवको प्रतिरूपसमेत तयार पार्न सकिने सम्भावना बढेको छ। क्लेानिङ प्रविधि प्रयोग गरी सिद्धान्ततः कुनै पनि मृत वा जीवित मानिसको प्रतिरूप तयार पार्न सकिने देखिन्छ। तथापि अहिलेको अवस्थामा यो काम प्राविधिक दृष्टिकोणले निकै कठिन मानिन्छ। तर हिजो कठिन वा असम्भव देखिएका कतिपय कुरा अहिले वैज्ञानिक यथार्थमा परिणत भएका उदाहरण थुप्रै छन्। तसर्थ मानव क्लोनिङको सम्भावनालाई पूरै नकार्न सकिन्न।

मानव प्रतिरूप तयार पार्नु नैतिक तथा चिकित्सकीय दृष्टिकोणले अनुचित हुने भन्दै युरोप, अमेरिकालगायत विश्वका सबैजसो देशमा मानव क्लोनिङमा प्रतिबन्ध लगाइएको छ। तथापि केही वैज्ञानिकहरू पहिलो मानव शिशुको प्रतिरूप तयार पार्ने होडबाजीमा लागेका हुन् कि भन्ने शंका गरिन्छ। सन् २००३ मा ‘क्लोन एड’ नाम गरेको एक अमेरिकी जैविक प्रविधि कम्पनीले आफ्ना वैज्ञानिकद्वारा ‘इभ’ नाउँकी एक शिशु बालिकाको मानव प्रतिरूप तयार गरिएको दावीसमेत गरेको थियो। कम्पनीले थप प्रतिरूप शिशुको जन्म हुने पनि घोषणा गरेको थियो। वैज्ञानिक स्तरमा यस समाचारको विश्वसनीयताबारे पुष्टि हुन नसकेपनि यसले सञ्चार माध्यममा ठूलै सनसनी फैलाएको थियो र विश्वभर मानव क्लोनिङको मानवीय, चिकित्सकीय र नैतिक पक्ष विपक्षबारे तीव्र बहस सुरु भएको थियो।

मानव क्लोनिङको सम्भावनाले समाजमा आशा र भय दुवै उत्पन्न गरेको छ। यस प्रविधिले अकालमै मृत्यु भएका मानव शिशुको प्रतिरूप तयार गरेर त्यस शिशुको ‘पुनर्जन्म’ समेत गराउने सम्भावना बोकेको छ। यसले कतिपय दुःखीआमाबाबुले आफ्ना गुमेका बच्चा पुनः प्राप्त गर्ने सम्भावना हुन्छ। यस्तो सम्भावनाले समाजका कतिपय व्यक्तिमा ठूलो उत्साहको सञ्चार गरेको छ। यस प्रविधिद्वारा कतिपय मानिस अल्बर्ट आइन्स्टाइनजस्ता अपूर्व बुद्धि र प्रतिभाका प्रतीक मानिने महान् वैज्ञानिकको प्रतिरूप तयार पार्न सकिने सम्भावनाबाट रोमाञ्चित हुने गर्छन् भने, कतिपय मानिस यही प्रविधिबाट एडोल्फ हिटलरजस्ता क्रुर र खतरनाक व्यक्तिको ‘पुनर्जन्म’ हुने आशंकाले भयभीत पनि हुने गर्छन्। के वास्तवमै क्लोनिङ प्रविधिबाट अर्को आइन्स्टाइन वा हिटलरको ‘पुनर्जन्म’ हुन सक्छ? के क्लोनिङ प्रविधिबाट तयार पारिएको कुनै पनि मानव प्रतिरूपको शारीरिक, बौद्धिक र मानसिक स्वभाव दुरुस्त मूल व्यक्ति समान हुन्छ? यस्ता प्रश्नको सही उत्तर प्राप्त गर्न मानिसको समग्र विकासमा आनुवंशिक तत्व (जेनेटिक मटेरियल) र भौतिक तथा सामाजिक वातावरणले खेल्ने भूमिकाबारे चर्चा गर्न आवश्यक हुन्छ।

मानिसबाहेक प्रायः सबैजसो प्राणीको जैविक क्रियाकलाप र व्यवहार मूलतः आमाबाबुबाट प्राप्त वंशाणुगत गुण र ज्ञानबाट निर्देशित हुने गर्छ। तर अन्य प्राणीका तुलनामा स्नायु प्रणाली र मस्तिष्क उच्च विकसित भएकाले मानिसमा आफ्ना आमाबाबुबाट मात्र नभएर आफू हुर्केको भौतिकसामाजिक वातावरणबाट समेत ज्ञान आर्जित गर्ने क्षमता हुन्छ। मानिसमा वर्तमानमात्र नभएर भूतकालको ज्ञानलाई समेत उपयोग गर्ने क्षमता विकास भएको छ, जुन अरू कुनै प्राणीमा पाइँदैन। मानिसले आफूले यसरी हासिल गरेको ज्ञानलाई आफ्नो मस्तिष्कमा धेरै समयसम्म सञ्चित गरी आफ्ना व्यवहारमा अनुकूल परिवर्तन गर्न उचित समयमा पुनः प्रयोग गर्न सक्छन्। त्यसैले मानिसको जैविक क्रियाकलाप र व्यवहार, आमाबाबुबाट प्राप्त वंशाणुगत गुण र ज्ञानका साथै आफूले आर्जन गरेको ज्ञानमा पनि निर्भर हुन्छ।

मानिसको जैविक व्यवहार र आन्तरिक चेतना मूलतः आमाबाबुबाट प्राप्त आनुवंशिक तत्वबाट निर्देशित भएपनि बौद्धिक एवं मानसिक व्यवहार भने भौतिक एवं सामाजिक वातावरणबाट आर्जित ज्ञान र अनुभवबाट बढी प्रभावित हुने विश्वास गरिन्छ। तसर्थ कुनै पनि मानिसको व्यक्तित्व, व्यवहार र बुद्धि उसको वंशाणुगत गुण र ऊ हुर्केको वातावरणको संयुक्त उपज हो। यिनै कारणले गर्दा समान वंशाणुगत गुण भएका तर फरक सामाजिक परिवेशमा हुर्किएका जुम्ल्याहाको शारीरिक रूप र जैविक गुण एकदम समान भए पनि उनीहरूको बौद्धिक र मानसिक स्वभावमा कतिपय भिन्नता पनि पाइन्छ। मानिसको समग्र विकासमा आनुवंशिक तत्व र वातावरणमध्ये कुन पक्ष बढी प्रभावी हुन्छ, किटान गरेर भन्न सकिएको छैन। आनुवंशिक तत्व र वातावरणबीचको सम्बन्ध अत्यन्त जटिल र पेचिलो मानिन्छ।

भनिन्छ, आइन्स्टाइनको मस्तिष्कको केही भाग अझै कतै सुरक्षित छ। आइन्स्टाइनको देहान्तपछि कुनै चिकित्सक वा अनुसन्धाताले आइन्स्टाइनको तीक्ष्ण बुद्धिको रहस्य पत्ता लगाउन गोप्यरूपमा उनको मस्तिष्कका केही भाग रसायनिक घोलमा डुबाएर सुरक्षित गरी राखेको बताइन्छ। हिटलरको मृत शरीरको कुनै अङ्ग आजपनि सु्रक्षित छ वा छैन थाहा छैन। हिटलरको आत्महत्यापछि उनीप्रति वफादार सैनिक जवानले उनको शरीरलाई जलाएर नष्ट गरेको बताइन्छ। तथापि हिटलरको मृत्यु आजपनि रहस्य छ। मृत्युपछि उनको शरीरलाई कतै सुरक्षित ठाउँमा लुकाएर राखिएको छ भन्ने पनि सुनिएको छ।

क्लेानिङका लागि आवश्यक जीवको कोषभित्र पाइने आनुवंशिक तत्व अर्थात् डिएनए अति स्थिर तत्व मानिन्छ। हजाराँै वर्ष पुरानो मृत जीवको कोषबाट संकलित डिएनएलाई समेत वैज्ञानिकहरू पुनः क्रियाशील तुल्याउन सफल भएका छन्। तसर्थ आइन्स्टाइन र हिटलरको मृत शरीरको कुनै अंग वा तन्तु वास्तवमा सुरक्षित छ भने त्यसबाट संकलित कोषको प्रयोगगरी आधुनिक क्लेानिङ प्रविधिमार्फत् सिद्धान्ततः आइन्स्टाइन र हिटलरको प्रतिरूप शिशु तयार गर्न असम्भव देखिंदैन। तर यसरी निर्माण गरिएको आइन्स्टाइनको प्रतिरूप वास्तवमै आइन्स्टाइनजस्तै अपूर्व बुद्धि र प्रतिभासम्पन्न व्यक्तिमा विकसित हुनेछ नै भन्ने निश्चित् चाहिँ छैन। प्रतिरूपमा वैज्ञानिक आइन्स्टाइनकै शतप्रतिशत आनुवंशिक तत्व रहने भएपनि ऊ हुर्किने र बाँच्ने अहिलेको वातावरण र त्यतिबेला आइन्स्टाइन हुर्केका र बाँचेका वातावरणको भौतिक, सामाजिक तथा वैज्ञानिक संरचना भिन्न हुनेछन्। तसर्थ आइन्स्टाइनको प्रतिरूपको व्यवहार र व्यक्तित्व वैज्ञानिक उनको भन्दा नितान्त भिन्न पनि हुन सक्नेछ।

आइन्स्टाइनजस्तै हिटलर पनि उनको आनुवंशिक तत्वको उपजमात्र नभएर त्यसबखत जर्मनी र युरोपमा विद्यमान राजनीतिक एवं आर्थिक-सामाजिक परिस्थितिको परिणाम पनि हुन्। हिटलरको प्रतिरूप हुर्किने आजको विश्वको वातावरण, राजनीतिक एवं आर्थिक-सामाजिक अवस्था हिटलर त्यतिबेला हुर्किएको संसारभन्दा नितान्त फरक छ। तसर्थ हिटलर र उनको प्रतिरूपको व्यवहार पनि फरक हुनेछ र उनीहरू फरक व्यक्ति हुनेछन्।

आधुनिक क्लेानिङ प्रविधिबाट एकैरूप र समान आनुवंशिक तत्व भएका व्यक्तिको निर्माण गर्न सकिएला तर यस प्रविधिबाट तयार पारिएको कुनै पनि मानव प्रतिरूपको व्यवहार र व्यक्तित्व सर्वथा मूल व्यक्ति समान हुन सम्भव छैन। अर्थात्, क्लेानिङ प्रविधिमार्फत् अर्को आइन्स्टाइन वा हिटलरको ‘पुनर्जन्म’ सम्भव छैन।

Source : http://www.nagariknews.com/opinions/98-opinion/11251-2010-03-11-07-46-12.html

The diarrheal outbreak in Far- and Mid-Western regions of Nepal in 2009 was a cause for genuine concern as it affected over 5,000 individuals and caused more than 200 deaths. In Jajarkot district alone, more than 100 people died in just four months, with over 400 affected. Scientifically speaking, a bacterial strain by the name of Vibrio cholera was identified in almost 39 percent of the 15 samples tested. However, V. cholera is not the only pathogen capable of causing severe or fatal diarrhea in developing countries, Nepal being an example. A number of other bacterial and viral pathogens have been implicated in diarrheal outbreaks worldwide. Those include a number of Escherichia coli strains, Aeromonas strains, Campylobacter strains, Shigella strains, Salmonella strains, as the most pathogenic ones. Campylobacter strains are sometimes associated with food poisoning in diarrheal cases while Salmonella strains are known to be mostly associated with foodstuff and in some cases with contaminated drinking water. Aeromonas species is primarily associated with water and is known to cause cholera-like diarrheal symptoms, thus increasing the possibility of false diagnosis of cholera when this may not actually be the case.

In the Nepali context, V. cholera types have been implicated often in a larger number of occasions. The first report of cholera in Nepal was officially published for the years 1958 to 1960 by a medical doctor visiting Nepal. A total of 410 deaths over a three-year period in Kathmandu, with more than 3,000 affected, were reported. An outbreak of acute diarrheal disease in Kavre district during the year 2005 showed 31 percent cases positive for V. cholera. Using molecular (DNA/RNA of organisms as targets) method, a Japanese research group found that recent outbreaks in the country were mainly due to the V. cholera. A very recent study using latest molecular methods carried out by Center for Molecular Dynamics Nepal in collaboration with Nepal Health Research Council has found that diarrheal outbreak may be caused not only by V. cholera alone, but in a combination with other virulent pathogens, including Aeromonas species.

To date, the detection of diarrheal pathogens in Nepal has relied almost extensively on microbiological (growth of pathogens in culture media), biochemical (by-products of pathogenic metabolism) and serological tests (immune response of host to pathogen). These methods may have been useful until the recent past, but with the advent of molecular technology, same cannot be said anymore. Thus, the limited laboratory facilities in the government sector appears to have prevented early diagnosis of the recent 2009 outbreak considering that the first presumptive identification of the causative agent was only carried out and made public three months after the start of the outbreak. This may have contributed to delayed treatment as it is hard for a clinician to effectively suggest the dosage and frequency of medication in outbreak situations without a proper screening mechanism in place.

Many of the deaths due to diarrhea in Nepal have been caused as a result of dehydration resulting from loss of water and electrolytes (intestinal malabsorption or increased secretion). Replacement of these losses by oral rehydration solution is the mainstay of therapy for individuals with watery diarrhea. The treatment of diarrhea by water or water supplemented with salts (Oral Rehydration Solution) has been extensively promoted in endemic pockets in Nepal where the incidence of diarrheal outbreaks is high. However, in extreme cases, antibiotic needs to be administered. As an example, if we just take the case of two different causative agents of diarrheal outbreaks in developing countries, Vibrio species and Aeromonas species, the critical importance of prior diagnosis becomes apparent. The recommended medication for Aeromonas species is usually Cefixime, and most third-generation and fourth-generation cephalosporins (a family of antibiotics). However, in the case of V. cholera, Tetracycline is the usual antibiotic of choice, and in some cases, doxycycline, and other broad-spectrum antibiotics (another family of antibiotics). Thus, there are clearly differences in medication for the two different species and wrong medication for either could lead to delayed recovery and in the long term, development of antibiotic resistance by the pathogen.

The principle of PDTC (Prevention, Diagnosis Treatment and Care) has been the guiding light in major disease management in Nepal and elsewhere. However, in the case of diarrheal outbreaks, the relative emphasis needs to be adjusted. While prevention remains the mainstay strategy to deal with the problem of diarrhea, the need for correct diagnosis has emerged as the most important prong of the ladder for effective and efficient management of diarrheal diseases and epidemics as well as prevention of such future outbreaks. One of the major reasons is that traditional methods require that the pathogen be grown (cultured) in the laboratory. A large number of pathogens cannot survive very well outside the human body and thus may not be detected although they are present in the body. Methods that do not require culture such as biochemical tests and serological tests take time and are not very indicative of the actual bacterial species present. Therefore, molecular methods are the future of any disease diagnostics.

A comprehensive screening for presence of major pathogens, both bacterial and viral, can be carried out using this type of technology which is already available in Nepal. The use of these modern methods would not only result in rapid diagnosis, but also enable highly-specific identification of the actual pathogen(s) involved in a diarrheal outbreak. Therefore, modern methods of diagnosis should be explored, and utilized by the government health sector as well as external development partners working in health sector, for better management of future outbreaks. The cost of such diagnostic procedures which may be higher than traditional methods initially can be lessened tremendously if the capacity-building for molecular diagnosis is promoted within the country.

Dr Sameer M Dixit, PhD is the Country Director of Center for Molecular Dynamics Nepal (CMDN). Dr Mahesh Maskey, DSc is the Former Chair, Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC)

Source : http://www.myrepublica.com/portal/index.php?action=news_details&news_id=15949